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The Supreme Court of Cassation of the Republic of Bulgaria recognized under "exceptional circumstances," the right of an active partner in a limited liability company to act as an ad hoc representative. This decision references to Articles 6 and 13 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECPHRFF) and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR).

As we outlined in our earlier article, the option of a demerger by means of a spin-off (odštiepenie) is a significant innovation introduced into the Slovak corporate landscape by the Transformations Act.

1 March 2024 marks the date when the Transformations Act No. 309/2023 came into force in Slovakia. This regulation comprehensively outlines the procedures for national and cross-border mergers, divisions, and conversions of companies and cooperatives, moving away from the previously scattered provisions in the Commercial Code.

There has been much discussion about protracted shortages of critical medicines in the Czech Republic over the last couple of months. Many national measures have been adopted. At the European Union level,the Voluntary Solidarity Mechanism for medicines has been put in place.

Early-stage startups often face a significant challenge due to their very limited runway – as usually they burn money faster than they are able to acquire funding – which makes external capital crucial for sustainability. From the perspective of potential investors determining the worth of these startups is a key factor in deciding whether to invest or not into the specific project which is complex and time consuming, a luxury startups often lack.

Anyone who has seen venture capital investments has probably encountered the expressions “vesting” or “reverse vesting”.

On 29 June 2023, Deforestation-free Products Regulation ((EU) 2023/1115) entered into force with the aim of minimising the EU’s contribution to deforestation and forest degradation worldwide. Combating deforestation and forest degradation constitutes an important part of the package of measures needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and global biodiversity loss.

The Act No. 497/2022 Coll. on the screening of foreign investments and on amendments and supplements to certain acts, as amended, and Slovak Government Regulation No. 61/2023 Coll. establish critical foreign investments rules (the "FDI legislation"). In cooperation with the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic (the "Ministry") we have prepared an overview of some practical issues in connection with the FDI legislation.

Are you going to argue legal professional privilege? If so, you may be interested in a recent judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union (the "CJEU"), which significantly expands the scope of legal professional privilege.

The Green Deal for Europe aims to boost the efficient use of resources, helps to keep sustainable environment policy and transforms particular economies of the EU countries by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, by rebuilding immovables in order to reach higher level of energy sustainability, by introducing products with longer sustainability time, by developing products that may be easily recycled, by combating global deforestation, and much more.

Today, the majority of large companies produce sustainability reports covering their ESG practices. However, one major obstacle to voluntary ESG reporting is the inconsistency of the shared information Companies have the liberty to select their ESG reporting framework and decide what information to disclose, which results in difficulties for investors and other stakeholders to compare ESG risks and impacts uniformly.

The European Commission is preparing a new regulation on so-called green bonds, the draft for which is already in its final form and should be approved by the European Parliament shortly. The regulation will allow issuers to issue bonds under the unified designation "European green bond", in exchange for compliance by issuers with certain conditions and obligations related to the financing of their sustainable projects.

In a recent decision, the Supreme Court ruled on the validity of a provision in an agreement on a future agreement and which provided for an "automatic" transfer of the ownership title to the object of the sale if the future agreement was not concluded within a certain period of time. Essentially, both an agreement on a future agreement, which anticipated the subsequent conclusion of the transfer agreement, and a conditional transfer agreement itself were included in one document. The Supreme Court found that such an arrangement did not invalidate the agreement.

The Office for the Protection of Competition has recently published the results of a sectoral investigation in the pharmaceutical sector. The sectoral investigation is a tool used by both, national competition authorities and the European Commission to comprehensively investigate competition rules in a given sector, especially if they suspect that competition rules are being violated.

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