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In the past few years, Turkey has experienced a veritable tech miracle. A swath of start-ups, primarily in the gaming and e-commerce sectors, has attracted multi-billion-dollar investments and achieved record valuations. Two companies have even reached decacorn status – a valuation of over USD 10 billion.

For the last few years, and especially since the second half of 2021, Turkey has been struggling with an ever-growing financial and economic crisis. Dubbed as one of the “Fragile Five” economies in financial circles, the country has long been seen as a developing economy with a high degree of dependence on foreign investment and US monetary policy, limiting its power to control and contain financial emergencies.

With the Regulation Amending the Distance Contracts Regulation [“Amendment Regulation”] published on the Official Gazette on 23 August 2022, many amendments were introduced to the Distance Contracts Regulation [the “Regulation”] published on the Official Gazette numbered 29188 and dated 27 November 2014. Many of these amendments aim to provide harmonisation with the amended Law no.6563 on the Regulation of Electronic Commerce [the “Law”] on 7 July 2022, and to regulate the liabilities of intermediary service providers in a comprehensive manner.

Electricity generation, transmission, distribution, and trade are considered public services by court decisions. The liberal economy policies enforced following the entry into force of the 1982 Constitution also find their place in the electricity market. Accordingly, providing the public services via civil law contracts was made possible with the amendments to the Turkish Constitution in 1999.

Nowadays, the importance of international transportation and logistics activities has increased since the commercial relations surpassed the national borders. The most common type of carriage of goods is undoubtedly the road transportation. As a matter of fact, 76.1% of goods are transported by road in Turkey, 69.5% in the USA and 45% in Europe. Taking this into account, to determine common standards between the states regarding the documents used in carriage of goods by road and the responsibility of the carrier, “Convention on The Contract For The International Carriage Of Goods By Road” (Convention Relative Au Contrat De Transport İnternational Per Marchandises Par Route) [“CMR”] was adopted by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) in 1956, and was entered into force in 1961. The CMR, to which Turkey became a party with a reservation on Article 47 on October 31, 1995, has the force of law in the Turkish legal system.

In Turkish Law, contracts of transport are regulated in the fourth book of the Turkish Commercial Code No. 6012 ["TCC"] under the name "Transport Affairs". In this article, the period of delivery, which is one of the key aspects of transport contracts, and the presumption of loss, namely the legal consequence of non-compliance with this period, will be discussed briefly.

In its decision dated 18.08.2018 and numbered AT.40099, the European Union Commission [the "EU Commission"] fined Google with 4.34 billion Euros for abusing its dominant position through requiring smartphone makers to take a bundle of Google apps, preventing use of other versions of Android and concluding anti-competitive revenue share agreements. The General Court [the “Court”] dismissed Google’s appeal and upheld the Commission’s decision by slightly reducing the amount of fine to 4.125 billion EUR. This was recorded as the highest penalty ever imposed by European competition authorities.

In today's digital landscape, where all sorts of data can be recorded and removing such is incredibly hard due to rapid and wide information sharing Ii is important that certain records cease to be accessible, especially after a period of time, so that the individual can pursue his/her life freely. In this context, requests to remove the results of searches using a person's first and last name from search engines such as Google have become quite widespread. This article on the right to be forgotten, which forms the basis of these requests, will discuss the ways in which these and similar requests can be made, the criteria according to which applications are/or should be evaluated, and the limits of the right to be forgotten.

The Environmental Impact Assessment Regulation ["Regulation"], repealing the previous regulation dated 2014,  entered into force upon its publication in the Official Gazette no. 31907 dated 29 July 2022. The new Regulation introduces significant updates within the framework of the "Green Development Goals".

With the Banking Regulatory and Supervisory Authority’s [the “BRSA”] decision numbered 10250 and dated 24 June 2022 [the “Restriction Decision”], TRL borrowing by Companies [“Companies”], other than banks and financial institutions, which are subject to independent audit has become subject to a foreign currency asset [“FX-Asset”] restriction was introduced.

A new asset peace regulation entered into force with the article 50 of Law No. 7417 on Certain Amendments to Civil Servants Law and Certain Laws and Statutory Decree No. 375 [the “Law No. 7417”] which was published in the Official Gazette numbered 31887 on 5 July 2022.

With the “Act Amending Banking Law, Some Other Laws and the Decree no. 655” [“Amending Act”], Banking Law no. 6411 [“Banking Law”] and Act no. 6758 on the Approval of a Decree with Amendments [“Act no. 6758”] was amended with respect to the articles regarding the authorities and responsibilities of the Savings Deposit Insurance Fund – the so-called “TMSF” [“SDIF”].

The Law Amending the Law on the Regulation of Electronic Commerce [“Amending Law”] was adopted on July 1, 2022 by the General Assembly of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and subsequently published on the Official Gazette on 07 July 2022 as Law no. 7416. The Law no. 6563 on the Regulation of Electronic Commerce [the "Law"] published on the Official Gazette no. 29166 dated November 5, 2014 has undergone many changes with the Amending Law. Accordingly, new obligations and restrictions have been introduced onto intermediary service providers, including obtaining and renewal of an e-commerce license, restrictions on advertisement and promotions, and a ban on the sale of platform-owned brands; and new definitions have been to the Law.

With the Banking Regulatory and Supervisory Authority’s [“BRSA”] decision numbered 10250 and dated June 24, 2022 [“Decision”], Turkish Lira borrowing by companies, other than banks and financial institutions, which are subject to independent audit [“Companies”] has become subject to a foreign currency asset [“FX-Assets”] restriction.

Turkish citizenship can be acquired in several ways, including by marriage or employment or living for a certain period of time. Another option is making investment in the country. Accordingly, those who fulfil the requirements set out in the law can easily get the citizenship after filing the required documents.

Guleryuz Partners at a Glance

We are Güleryüz Partners, an Istanbul based law firm, offering high-quality legal services to domestic and multinational clients.

Our team consists of energetic young professionals who are led by talented partners with strong academic backgrounds at prestigious universities in the USA, UK, and Germany, coupled with vast market experience exceeding a decade at top tier Turkish law firms. All our associates are fluent in English and provide legal advice in additional languages such as German and French.

Our practice ranges from complex disputes to sophisticated M&A and finance transactions. We provide niche legal services in a wide range of legal areas such as litigation and dispute resolution, local and cross border M&As, banking, finance and capital markets, venture capital investments and start-ups, and compliance and corporate governance (including data privacy, anti-corruption and white-collar crime, AML, and sanctions).

We value strong communication and information flow among our departments for the perfection of our legal services. This interdepartmental coordination enables us to take a more client-centric approach and to better understand and cater for the client needs. Our business perspective goes beyond providing excellent legal advice to our clients; we also collaborate with them as their business partners and offer them the entire legal ecosystem that they can thrive their business.  

As Güleryüz Partners, we heavily invest in our pro bono projects in Turkiye and work together with institutions, foundations, and other organizations to provide legal advice to the persons in need of help, while acknowledging the high costs usually associated with high quality legal services limit the access to justice for many people.

We also pride ourselves on fostering and promoting a diverse, equitable and inclusive work environment where every individual feels valued and respected.

For further information, you may visit our website at www.guleryuz.av.tr.