25
Fri, Sep
59 New Articles

Quarantine as a Force Majeure in Ukraine: What Does This Mean for Business?

Quarantine as a Force Majeure in Ukraine: What Does This Mean for Business?

Ukraine
Tools
Typography
  • Smaller Small Medium Big Bigger
  • Default Helvetica Segoe Georgia Times

On March 17, 2020 a law (bill No. 3219) came into force that included quarantine established by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine in the list of force majeure events. Will this be a tool that allows Ukrainian businesses to drop their obligations without any consequences? In most cases – no, because force majeure is not as easy as it might seem at first glance.

Is quarantine always a force majeure event?

The Law on Chambers of Commerce in Ukraine provides the following definition:

“Force majeure events (circumstances of insuperable force) are extraordinary and inevitable circumstances that objectively make it impossible to fulfill the obligations stipulated in the agreement (contract, transaction, etc.) and obligations under legislative and other normative acts.” After this definition the law provides the list of circumstances that may be considered as force majeure. This list has recently been supplemented by quarantine.

It should be noted that this list is not exhaustive – It ends with the word “etc.”. That is, the absence of a direct reference to “quarantine” does not mean that any event which is not explicitly stated in the law cannot be declared as force majeure. In addition, circumstances such as the “epidemic” and “long-term interruptions in transport, governed by the relevant decisions and acts of state authorities”, were previously included in this list. However, a clear statement in the law that quarantine can be recognized as a force majeure is likely to make it easier for businesses to confirm this fact.

We knowingly write that quarantine “may be recognized” instead of “is recognized” as force majeure. The mere rule that quarantine is in the list of force majeure events is not enough to apply it to your business and your contracts.

How to confirm force majeure?

The only admissible evidence to confirm the existence of force majeure is a certificate issued by the Ukrainian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and regional chambers of commerce and industry. Such a certificate must be obtained separately for every contract regarding which force majeure event has arisen.

A certificate of force majeure is not automatically issued. As can be seen from the definition of force majeure, these circumstances must objectively prevent the fulfillment of contractual or any other obligation. This means that in order to obtain a certificate of force majeure, an entity must prove that it cannot fulfill its particular obligation(s) because of the quarantine. In other words, if there were no quarantine, there would be no obstacle to fulfill this obligation. The burden of proving such causation rests with the applicant.

What does the case law say?

A certificate of force majeure, although mandatory, is not sufficient. There are court rulings where the Supreme Court did not declare the occurrence of force majeure event despite having a certificate issued by Chamber of Commerce (Case No. 926/2343/16, Case No. 902/368/16, Case No. 904/1224/18). In addition, the Supreme Court concluded last year that there is no provision about force majeure in tax legislation, therefore even a certificate of force majeure will not help in disputes with tax authorities (case no. 804/15246/15).

What is in practice?

Imagine that someone's business was badly affected by the quarantine and that person was able to obtain certificates of force majeure regarding its contracts. However, this is not a permit for non-performance of the contractual obligations. The most interesting thing about force majeure is that it releases from liability for non-performance, but does not absolves from the performance of the obligation itself. In other words, force majeure is an exemption from fines and penalties, but not from the payments stipulated in the contract. Moreover, provided for in Art. 625 of the Civil Code of Ukraine “compensatory” 3% per annum and inflationary losses are maintained regardless of the presence of force majeure – in this regard the Supreme Court of Ukraine spoke in 2017 (Case No. 913/869/14).

On the other hand, we recommend reviewing your contracts where the force majeure clause may absolve not only from liability but also from the obligation itself. 

Also, in some cases the law may also exempt from the obligation. An example is the obligation to pay rent. At present, all shopping and entertainment centers in Kyiv are closed which makes it impossible for tenants to conduct business activities, that is, to use the leased premises for the intended purpose.

In this case, tenants can take advantage of the provisions of Part 6 of Art. 762 of the Civil Code of Ukraine, under which the tenant is exempted from the obligation to pay the rent for the whole period during which the tenant was deprived of the opportunity to use the premises due to circumstances beyond its control. Thus, the tenant does not even need to obtain a certificate of force majeure – it is sufficient to record the fact that it is impossible to use the leased premises. 

Conclusions

Undoubtedly, a certificate of force majeure is a very useful business tool. It allows to get rid of fines and penalties, as well as to delay the fulfillment of the obligation until the force majeure expires. But obtaining it is not an easy procedure. It is important to think carefully about whether this is applicable to your business. Consideration should also be given to modifying existing contractual agreements with counterparties. And, of course, there is no need to fear that all agreements suddenly became unenforceable due to the inclusion of quarantine into the list of force majeure events.

Take care and stay safe!

By Iryna Kalnytska, Partner, GOLAW

GOLAW at a Glance

GOLAW is one of the leading Ukrainian full-service law firms. The firm was founded in 2003 and currently has offices in Kyiv (Ukraine) and Berlin (Germany). The lawyers of the firm are widely recognised for their skills and extensive expertise. GOLAW’s team focuses on efficiently resolving issues facing the clients, communicating effectively on their behalf, assisting them in navigating the nuances of Ukrainian law, and avoiding costly legal traps.

The client portfolio of the firm includes large and medium-sized, national and foreign companies, banks and financial institutions, as well as private investors doing business in Ukraine or entering local markets. GOLAW provides sophisticated legal advice and reliable legal assistance in all major sectors, including agribusiness, retail and FMCG, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, financial services, energy and natural resources, transportation and infrastructure, internet technology, and real estate. Areas of practice: GOLAW developed a top-tier tax practice which includes issues concerning tax functioning in Ukraine, strategic advice on tax planning, tax and fiscal controls, as well as professional contacts with the tax authorities at all levels. The firm represents its clients in dispute resolution and litigation in general, economic and administrative courts of all levels, along with support for international commercial disputes. The deep expertise in white-collar defence and investigations allows GOLAW attorneys to successfully represent clients in criminal legal proceedings, advising them on the wider commercial, regulatory and image implications when there are allegations of fraud or corruption.

GOLAW professionals advise clients across the broad spectrum of corporate work including M&A, joint ventures and corporate restructuring, as well as general commercial, antitrust and corporate governance issues. The effective combination of transactional skills combined with unique expertise including antitrust, employment, environmental, intellectual property and taxation, enables the firm to handle the issues that can arise from any single corporate transaction. In banking and finance, the firm successfully represents clients regardless of whether it is a trade, export, finance deal, M&A, or any other financial project; it also provides advice on civil, banking and currency laws. The firm is a leader in representing financial services institutions in contentious insolvency and regulatory matters. The firm’s team of lawyers utilises unrivalled local knowledge of the demands of operating in increasingly international and volatile markets, with a deep understanding of the issues impacting the energy and natural resources sectors.

Clients of the firm are involved in commodities, power, oil and gas, nuclear, mining, metals and minerals, renewable and clean-technology energy industries. GOLAW covers the full range of labour and employment matters, including: whistleblower litigation, labour-management relations, benefits, collective agreements, and employment of foreign citizens.

Firm's website.